gzip: stdout: Broken pipe

gzip: stdout: Broken pipe
ZIP(1L)								       ZIP(1L)

       zip - package and compress (archive) files

       zip  [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$] [--longoption ...]  [-b path]
       [-n suffixes] [-t date] [-tt date] [zipfile [file ...]]	[-xi list]

       zipcloak (see separate man page)

       zipnote (see separate man page)

       zipsplit (see separate man page)

       Note:  Command line processing in zip has been changed to support  long
       options	and  handle all options and arguments more consistently.  Some
       old command lines that depend on command line  inconsistencies  may  no
       longer work.

       zip  is	a compression and file packaging utility for Unix, VMS, MSDOS,
       OS/2, Windows 9x/NT/XP, Minix, Atari, Macintosh, Amiga, and Acorn  RISC
       OS.   It	 is analogous to a combination of the Unix commands tar(1) and
       compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil  Katz's  ZIP  for	 MSDOS

       A  companion  program  (unzip(1L))  unpacks  zip archives.  The zip and
       unzip(1L) programs can work with archives produced by PKZIP (supporting
       most PKZIP features up to PKZIP version 4.6), and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can
       work with archives produced  by	zip  (with  some  exceptions,  notably
       streamed	 archives,  but	 recent	 changes  in the zip file standard may
       facilitate better compatibility).  zip version 3.0 is  compatible  with
       PKZIP  2.04  and	 also supports the Zip64 extensions of PKZIP 4.5 which
       allow archives as well as files to exceed the previous 2 GB limit (4 GB
       in  some	 cases).  zip also now supports bzip2 compression if the bzip2
       library is included when zip is compiled.  Note that PKUNZIP 1.10  can-
       not extract files produced by PKZIP 2.04 or zip 3.0. You must use PKUN-
       ZIP 2.04g or unzip 5.0p1 (or later versions) to extract them.

       See the EXAMPLES section at the bottom of this  page  for  examples  of
       some typical uses of zip.

       Large Archives and Zip64.   zip automatically uses the Zip64 extensions
       when files larger than 4 GB are added to an archive,  an	 archive  con-
       taining	Zip64 entries is updated (if the resulting archive still needs
       Zip64), the size of the archive will exceed 4 GB, or when the number of
       entries	in  the archive will exceed about 64K.	Zip64 is also used for
       archives streamed from standard input as the size of such archives  are
       not  known  in advance, but the option -fz- can be used to force zip to
       create PKZIP 2 compatible archives (as long as Zip64 extensions are not
       needed).	  You must use a PKZIP 4.5 compatible unzip, such as unzip 6.0
       or later, to extract files using the Zip64 extensions.

       In addition, streamed archives, entries encrypted with standard encryp-
       tion,  or  split archives created with the pause option may not be com-
       patible with PKZIP as data descriptors are used and PKZIP at  the  time
       of  this	 writing does not support data descriptors (but recent changes
       in the PKWare published zip standard now include some support  for  the
       data descriptor format zip uses).

       Mac  OS	X.   Though  previous Mac versions had their own zip port, zip
       supports Mac OS X as part of the	 Unix  port  and  most	Unix  features
       apply.	References  to "MacOS" below generally refer to MacOS versions
       older than OS X.	 Support for some Mac OS features in the Unix Mac OS X
       port, such as resource forks, is expected in the next zip release.

       For  a  brief  help  on	zip and unzip, run each without specifying any
       parameters on the command line.

       The program is useful for packaging a set of  files  for	 distribution;
       for archiving files; and for saving disk space by temporarily compress-
       ing unused files or directories.

       The zip program puts one or more compressed files  into	a  single  zip
       archive, along with information about the files (name, path, date, time
       of last modification, protection, and check information to verify  file
       integrity).   An	 entire	 directory  structure can be packed into a zip
       archive with a single command.  Compression ratios of 2:1  to  3:1  are
       common  for text files.	zip has one compression method (deflation) and
       can also store files without compression.  (If bzip2 support is	added,
       zip can also compress using bzip2 compression, but such entries require
       a reasonably modern unzip to decompress.	  When	bzip2  compression  is
       selected,  it replaces deflation as the default method.)	 zip automati-
       cally chooses the better of the two (deflation or store or, if bzip2 is
       selected, bzip2 or store) for each file to be compressed.

       Command format.	The basic command format is

	      zip options archive inpath inpath ...

       where  archive  is a new or existing zip archive and inpath is a direc-
       tory or file path optionally including wildcards.  When given the  name
       of  an existing zip archive, zip will replace identically named entries
       in the zip archive (matching  the  relative  names  as  stored  in  the
       archive)	 or add entries for new names.	For example, if foo.zip exists
       and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2, and the  directory	 foo  contains
       the files foo/file1 and foo/file3, then:

	      zip -r foo.zip foo

       or more concisely

	      zip -r foo foo

       will  replace foo/file1 in foo.zip and add foo/file3 to foo.zip.	 After
       this,  foo.zip  contains	 foo/file1,  foo/file2,	 and  foo/file3,  with
       foo/file2 unchanged from before.

       So if before the zip command is executed foo.zip has:

	       foo/file1 foo/file2

       and directory foo has:

	       file1 file3

       then foo.zip will have:

	       foo/file1 foo/file2 foo/file3

       where foo/file1 is replaced and foo/file3 is new.

       -@ file lists.	If  a file list is specified as -@ [Not on MacOS], zip
       takes the list of input files from standard input instead of  from  the
       command line.  For example,

	      zip -@ foo

       will store the files listed one per line on stdin in foo.zip.

       Under  Unix,  this option can be used to powerful effect in conjunction
       with the find (1) command.  For example, to archive all	the  C	source
       files in the current directory and its subdirectories:

	      find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@

       (note  that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding

       Streaming input and output.  zip will also accept a single  dash	 ("-")
       as the zip file name, in which case it will write the zip file to stan-
       dard output, allowing the output to be piped to	another	 program.  For

	      zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       would  write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block
       size for the purpose of backing up the current directory.

       zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to  be  com-
       pressed,	 in  which  case  it  will  read the file from standard input,
       allowing zip to take input from another program. For example:

	      tar cf - . | zip backup -

       would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing
       up  the	current	 directory. This generally produces better compression
       than the previous example using the -r  option  because	zip  can  take
       advantage of redundancy between files. The backup can be restored using
       the command

	      unzip -p backup | tar xf -

       When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal,  zip  acts
       as  a filter, compressing standard input to standard output.  For exam-

	      tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       is equivalent to

	      tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with  the  program
       funzip  which  is  provided in the unzip package, or by gunzip which is
       provided in the gzip package (but some gunzip may not support  this  if
       zip used the Zip64 extensions). For example:

	      dd if=/dev/nrst0	ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -

       The stream can also be saved to a file and unzip used.

       If  Zip64  support  for	large files and archives is enabled and zip is
       used as a filter, zip creates a Zip64 archive that requires a PKZIP 4.5
       or  later compatible unzip to read it.  This is to avoid amgibuities in
       the zip file structure as defined in the current zip  standard  (PKWARE
       AppNote)	 where	the decision to use Zip64 needs to be made before data
       is written for the entry, but for a stream the size of the data is  not
       known at that point.  If the data is known to be smaller than 4 GB, the
       option -fz- can be used to prevent use of Zip64, but zip will exit with
       an  error if Zip64 was in fact needed.  zip 3 and unzip 6 and later can
       read archives with Zip64 entries.  Also, zip removes the	 Zip64	exten-
       sions  if  not  needed  when  archive  entries  are  copied (see the -U
       (--copy) option).

       When directing the output to another file, note that all options should
       be before the redirection including -x.	For example:

	      zip archive "*.h" "*.c" -x donotinclude.h orthis.h > tofile

       Zip files.   When  changing  an	existing zip archive, zip will write a
       temporary file with the new contents, and only replace the old one when
       the  process  of	 creating  the	new version has been completed without

       If the name of the zip archive  does  not  contain  an  extension,  the
       extension  .zip	is  added.  If	the name already contains an extension
       other than .zip, the existing extension is  kept	 unchanged.   However,
       split  archives	(archives  split over multiple files) require the .zip
       extension on the last split.

       Scanning and reading files.  When zip starts, it	 scans	for  files  to
       process	(if  needed).  If this scan takes longer than about 5 seconds,
       zip will display	 a  "Scanning  files"  message	and  start  displaying
       progress	 dots  every  2	 seconds  or  every so many entries processed,
       whichever takes longer.	If there is more than 2 seconds	 between  dots
       it  could indicate that finding each file is taking time and could mean
       a slow network connection for example.  (Actually the initial file scan
       is  a  two-step	process where the directory scan is followed by a sort
       and these two steps are separated with a space in the dots.  If	updat-
       ing an existing archive, a space also appears between the existing file
       scan and the new file scan.)  The scanning  files  dots	are  not  con-
       trolled	by the -ds dot size option, but the dots are turned off by the
       -q quiet option.	 The -sf show files option can be  used	 to  scan  for
       files  and  get	the  list of files scanned without actually processing

       If zip is not able to read a file, it issues a warning  but  continues.
       See  the -MM option below for more on how zip handles patterns that are
       not matched and files that  are	not  readable.	 If  some  files  were
       skipped, a warning is issued at the end of the zip operation noting how
       many files were read and how many skipped.

       Command modes.  zip now supports two distinct types of  command	modes,
       external	 and  internal.	 The external modes (add, update, and freshen)
       read files from the file system (as well as from an  existing  archive)
       while  the  internal  modes  (delete  and  copy) operate exclusively on
       entries in an existing archive.

	      Update existing entries and add new files.  If the archive  does
	      not exist create it.  This is the default mode.

       update (-u)
	      Update  existing entries if newer on the file system and add new
	      files.  If the archive does not exist issue warning then	create
	      a new archive.

       freshen (-f)
	      Update  existing entries of an archive if newer on the file sys-
	      tem.  Does not add new files to the archive.

       delete (-d)
	      Select entries in an existing archive and delete them.

       copy (-U)
	      Select entries in an existing archive and copy  them  to	a  new
	      archive.	 This  new  mode is similar to update but command line
	      patterns select entries in  the  existing	 archive  rather  than
	      files from the file system and it uses the --out option to write
	      the resulting archive to a  new  file  rather  than  update  the
	      existing archive, leaving the original archive unchanged.

       The new File Sync option (-FS) is also considered a new mode, though it
       is similar to update.  This mode	 synchronizes  the  archive  with  the
       files  on  the OS, only replacing files in the archive if the file time
       or size of the OS file is different, adding  new	 files,	 and  deleting
       entries from the archive where there is no matching file.  As this mode
       can delete entries from the archive, consider making a backup  copy  of
       the archive.

       Also see -DF for creating difference archives.

       See  each option description below for details and the EXAMPLES section
       below for examples.

       Split archives.	zip version 3.0 and later can create  split  archives.
       A  split	 archive  is a standard zip archive split over multiple files.
       (Note that split archives are not just archives split in to pieces,  as
       the  offsets of entries are now based on the start of each split.  Con-
       catenating the pieces together will invalidate these offsets, but unzip
       can  usually  deal  with it.  zip will usually refuse to process such a
       spliced archive unless the -FF fix option is used to fix the  offsets.)

       One use of split archives is storing a large archive on multiple remov-
       able media.  For a split archive with 20 split files the files are typ-
       ically	named	(replace  ARCHIVE  with	 the  name  of	your  archive)
       ARCHIVE.z01, ARCHIVE.z02, ..., ARCHIVE.z19, ARCHIVE.zip.	 Note that the
       last  file  is  the  .zip  file.	 In contrast, spanned archives are the
       original multi-disk archive generally requiring floppy disks and	 using
       volume  labels  to store disk numbers.  zip supports split archives but
       not spanned archives, though a procedure exists	for  converting	 split
       archives	 of  the  right size to spanned archives.  The reverse is also
       true, where each file of a spanned archive can be copied	 in  order  to
       files with the above names to create a split archive.

       Use  -s	to set the split size and create a split archive.  The size is
       given as a number followed optionally by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB),
       or  t (TB) (the default is m).  The -sp option can be used to pause zip
       between splits to allow changing removable media, for example, but read
       the descriptions and warnings for both -s and -sp below.

       Though  zip does not update split archives, zip provides the new option
       -O (--output-file or --out) to allow split archives to be  updated  and
       saved in a new archive.	For example,

	      zip inarchive.zip foo.c bar.c --out outarchive.zip

       reads  archive  inarchive.zip,  even if split, adds the files foo.c and
       bar.c, and writes the resulting archive to  outarchive.zip.   If	 inar-
       chive.zip is split then outarchive.zip defaults to the same split size.
       Be aware that if outarchive.zip and any split files  that  are  created
       with  it	 already exist, these are always overwritten as needed without
       warning.	 This may be changed in the future.

       Unicode.	 Though the zip standard requires storing paths in an  archive
       using  a	 specific character set, in practice zips have stored paths in
       archives in whatever the local character set is.	 This creates problems
       when  an	 archive is created or updated on a system using one character
       set and then extracted on another system using  a  different  character
       set.  When compiled with Unicode support enabled on platforms that sup-
       port wide characters, zip now stores, in addition to the standard local
       path  for  backward  compatibility,  the UTF-8 translation of the path.
       This provides a common universal character set for storing  paths  that
       allows  these paths to be fully extracted on other systems that support
       Unicode and to match as close as possible on systems that don't.

       On Win32 systems where paths are internally stored as Unicode but  rep-
       resented in the local character set, it's possible that some paths will
       be skipped during a local character set directory scan.	zip with  Uni-
       code support now can read and store these paths.	 Note that Win 9x sys-
       tems and FAT file systems don't fully support Unicode.

       Be aware that console windows on Win32 and Unix, for example, sometimes
       don't  accurately  show all characters due to how each operating system
       switches in character sets for display.	However, directory  navigation
       tools should show the correct paths if the needed fonts are loaded.

       Command line format.  This version of zip has updated command line pro-
       cessing and support for long options.

       Short options take the form

	      -s[-][s[-]...][value][=value][ value]

       where s is a one or two character short option.	A  short  option  that
       takes  a value is last in an argument and anything after it is taken as
       the value.  If the option can be negated and  "-"  immediately  follows
       the  option, the option is negated.  Short options can also be given as
       separate arguments

	      -s[-][value][=value][ value] -s[-][value][=value][ value] ...

       Short options in general take values either as part of the  same	 argu-
       ment  or	 as  the following argument.  An optional = is also supported.





	      -tt mmddyyyy

       all work.  The -x and -i options accept	lists  of  values  and	use  a
       slightly	 different format described below.  See the -x and -i options.

       Long options take the form

	      --longoption[-][=value][ value]

       where the option starts with --, has a multicharacter name, can include
       a  trailing  dash to negate the option (if the option supports it), and
       can have a value (option argument) specified by preceeding  it  with  =
       (no spaces).  Values can also follow the argument.  So



	      --before-date mmddyyyy

       both work.

       Long option names can be shortened to the shortest unique abbreviation.
       See the option descriptions below for which support long	 options.   To
       avoid confusion, avoid abbreviating a negatable option with an embedded
       dash ("-") at the dash if you plan to negate it (the parser would  con-
       sider  a	 trailing  dash,  such	as  for the option --some-option using
       --some- as the option, as part of  the  name  rather  than  a  negating
       dash).	This  may  be  changed to force the last dash in --some- to be
       negating in the future.

	      [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.

	      Adjust self-extracting executable	 archive.   A  self-extracting
	      executable  archive  is created by prepending the SFX stub to an
	      existing archive. The -A option tells zip to  adjust  the	 entry
	      offsets  stored in the archive to take into account this "pream-
	      ble" data.

       Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a  special  case.   At
       present, only the Amiga port of zip is capable of adjusting or updating
       these without corrupting them. -J can be used to remove the SFX stub if
       other updates need to be made.

	      [WIN32]	Once  archive  is  created  (and tested if -T is used,
	      which is recommended), clear the	archive	 bits  of  files  pro-
	      cessed.	WARNING:  Once	the bits are cleared they are cleared.
	      You may want to use the -sf show files option to store the  list
	      of  files	 processed  in	case  the  archive  operation  must be
	      repeated.	 Also consider using the -MM must  match  option.   Be
	      sure to check out -DF as a possibly better way to do incremental

	      [WIN32]  Only include files  that	 have  the  archive  bit  set.
	      Directories  are	not stored when -AS is used, though by default
	      the paths of entries, including directories, are stored as usual
	      and can be used by most unzips to recreate directories.

	      The  archive  bit	 is set by the operating system when a file is
	      modified and, if used with -AC, -AS can provide  an  incremental
	      backup  capability.   However, other applications can modify the
	      archive bit and it may not be  a	reliable  indicator  of	 which
	      files  have  changed since the last archive operation.  Alterna-
	      tive ways to create incremental backups are using -t to use file
	      dates,  though  this won't catch old files copied to directories
	      being archived, and -DF to create a differential archive.

	      [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text).

       -Bn    [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as
	      bit  0: Don't add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
	      bit  1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
	      bit  2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe)
	      bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
	      bit  8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files

       -b path
       --temp-path path
	      Use  the specified path for the temporary zip archive. For exam-

		     zip -b /tmp stuff *

	      will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp,	 copy-
	      ing  over	 stuff.zip  to	the  current directory when done. This
	      option is useful when updating an existing archive and the  file
	      system containing this old archive does not have enough space to
	      hold both old and new archives at the same time.	It may also be
	      useful  when  streaming in some cases to avoid the need for data
	      descriptors.  Note that using this option may require  zip  take
	      additional time to copy the archive file when done to the desti-
	      nation file system.

	      Add one-line comments for each file.  File  operations  (adding,
	      updating)	 are  done  first, and the user is then prompted for a
	      one-line comment for each file.  Enter the comment  followed  by
	      return, or just return for no comment.

	      [VMS]   Preserve	case  all  on VMS.  Negating this option (-C-)

	      [VMS]  Preserve case ODS2 on VMS.	 Negating this	option	(-C2-)

	      [VMS]   Preserve	case ODS5 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C5-)

	      Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:

		     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o

	      will remove the entry foo/tom/junk, all of the files that	 start
	      with  foo/harry/,	 and all of the files that end with .o (in any
	      path).  Note that shell pathname expansion  has  been  inhibited
	      with  backslashes,  so  that zip can see the asterisks, enabling
	      zip to match on the contents of the zip archive instead  of  the
	      contents	of  the	 current  directory.  (The backslashes are not
	      used on MSDOS-based platforms.)  Can also use quotes  to	escape
	      the asterisks as in

		     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk "foo/harry/*" "*.o"

	      Not  escaping  the asterisks on a system where the shell expands
	      wildcards could result in the asterisks  being  converted	 to  a
	      list  of	files  in  the current directory and that list used to
	      delete entries from the archive.

	      Under MSDOS, -d is case sensitive when it matches names  in  the
	      zip  archive.  This requires that file names be entered in upper
	      case if they were zipped by PKZIP on an MSDOS system.  (We  con-
	      sidered making this case insensitive on systems where paths were
	      case insensitive, but it is possible the	archive	 came  from  a
	      system where case does matter and the archive could include both
	      Bar and bar as separate files in the archive.)  But see the  new
	      option -ic to ignore case in the archive.

	      Display  running	byte  counts  showing the bytes zipped and the
	      bytes to go.

	      Display running count of entries zipped and entries to go.

	      Display dots while each entry is zipped (except  on  ports  that
	      have  their  own progress indicator).  See -ds below for setting
	      dot size.	 The default is a dot every 10 MB of input  file  pro-
	      cessed.	The -v option also displays dots (previously at a much
	      higher rate than this but now -v also defaults  to  10  MB)  and
	      this rate is also controlled by -ds.

	      [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive.
	      Good  for	 exporting   files   to	  foreign   operating-systems.
	      Resource-forks will be ignored at all.

	      Display  progress dots for the archive instead of for each file.
	      The command

			 zip -qdgds 10m

	      will turn off most output except dots every 10 MB.

       -ds size
       --dot-size size
	      Set amount of input file processed for each dot displayed.   See
	      -dd to enable displaying dots.  Setting this option implies -dd.
	      Size is in the format nm where n is a number and m is  a	multi-
	      plier.  Currently m can be k (KB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB), so
	      if n is 100 and m is k, size would be 100k which is 100 KB.  The
	      default is 10 MB.

	      The -v option also displays dots and now defaults to 10 MB also.
	      This rate is also controlled by this option.  A size of 0	 turns
	      dots off.

	      This  option does not control the dots from the "Scanning files"
	      message as zip scans for input files.  The dot size for that  is
	      fixed  at	 2  seconds or a fixed number of entries, whichever is

	      Display the uncompressed size of each entry.

	      Display the volume (disk) number each entry is being read	 from,
	      if reading an existing archive, and being written to.

	      Do  not  create  entries	in  the	 zip  archive for directories.
	      Directory	 entries  are  created	by  default  so	  that	 their
	      attributes  can  be  saved  in the zip archive.  The environment
	      variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default	 options.  For
	      example under Unix with sh:

		     ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

	      (The  variable  ZIPOPT  can be used for any option, including -i
	      and -x using a new option format detailed below, and can include
	      several  options.)  The option -D is a shorthand for -x "*/" but
	      the latter previously could not be set as default in the	ZIPOPT
	      environment  variable  as	 the  contents of ZIPOPT gets inserted
	      near the beginning of the command line and the file list had  to
	      end at the end of the line.

	      This  version  of	 zip does allow -x and -i options in ZIPOPT if
	      the form

	      -x file file ... @

	      is used, where the @ (an argument that is just @) terminates the

	      Create  an archive that contains all new and changed files since
	      the original archive was created.	 For this to work,  the	 input
	      file  list  and current directory must be the same as during the
	      original zip operation.

	      For example, if the existing archive was created using

		     zip -r foofull .

	      from the bar directory, then the command

		     zip -r foofull . -DF --out foonew

	      also from the bar directory creates the archive foonew with just
	      the  files  not  in foofull and the files where the size or file
	      time of the files do not match those in foofull.

	      Note that the timezone environment variable  TZ  should  be  set
	      according to the local timezone in order for this option to work
	      correctly.  A change in timezone since the original archive  was
	      created  could  result  in no times matching and all files being

	      A possible approach to backing up a directory might be to create
	      a	 normal	 archive  of  the  contents of the directory as a full
	      backup, then use this option to create incremental backups.

	      Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a  password	 which
	      is  entered  on  the terminal in response to a prompt (this will
	      not be echoed; if standard error is not a	 tty,  zip  will  exit
	      with  an	error).	  The  password prompt is repeated to save the
	      user from typing errors.

	      [OS/2] Use the .LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as	 file-

	      Replace  (freshen)  an existing entry in the zip archive only if
	      it has been modified more recently than the version  already  in
	      the zip archive; unlike the update option (-u) this will not add
	      files that are not already in the zip archive.  For example:

		     zip -f foo

	      This command should be run from the same	directory  from	 which
	      the  original  zip  command  was	run, since paths stored in zip
	      archives are always relative.

	      Note that the timezone environment variable  TZ  should  be  set
	      according	 to  the local timezone in order for the -f, -u and -o
	      options to work correctly.

	      The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do  with
	      the  differences	between	 the Unix-format file times (always in
	      GMT) and most of the other operating systems (always local time)
	      and  the	necessity  to  compare the two.	 A typical TZ value is
	      ''MET-1MEST'' (Middle European time  with	 automatic  adjustment
	      for ''summertime'' or Daylight Savings Time).

	      The  format is TTThhDDD, where TTT is the time zone such as MET,
	      hh is the difference between GMT	and  local  time  such	as  -1
	      above, and DDD is the time zone when daylight savings time is in
	      effect.  Leave off the DDD if there is no daylight savings time.
	      For the US Eastern time zone EST5EDT.

	      Fix  the zip archive. The -F option can be used if some portions
	      of the archive are missing, but  requires	 a  reasonably	intact
	      central  directory.   The input archive is scanned as usual, but
	      zip will ignore some problems.  The resulting archive should  be
	      valid, but any inconsistent entries will be left out.

	      When  doubled  as in -FF, the archive is scanned from the begin-
	      ning and zip scans for special signatures to identify the limits
	      between  the  archive members. The single -F is more reliable if
	      the archive is not too much damaged, so try this option first.

	      If the archive is too damaged or the end has been truncated, you
	      must  use	 -FF.	This  is  a change from zip 2.32, where the -F
	      option is able to read a truncated archive.  The -F  option  now
	      more  reliably  fixes  archives  with  minor  damage and the -FF
	      option is needed to fix archives where -F might have been suffi-
	      cient before.

	      Neither  option will recover archives that have been incorrectly
	      transferred in ascii mode instead of binary. After  the  repair,
	      the  -t option of unzip may show that some files have a bad CRC.
	      Such files cannot be recovered; you can  remove  them  from  the
	      archive using the -d option of zip.

	      Note  that  -FF may have trouble fixing archives that include an
	      embedded zip archive that was stored  (without  compression)  in
	      the  archive  and,  depending  on	 the  damage,  it may find the
	      entries in the embedded archive rather than the archive  itself.
	      Try -F first as it does not have this problem.

	      The  format  of  the fix commands have changed.  For example, to
	      fix the damaged archive foo.zip,

		     zip -F foo --out foofix

	      tries to read the entries normally, copying good entries to  the
	      new  archive  foofix.zip.	  If  this  doesn't  work, as when the
	      archive is truncated, or if some entries you  know  are  in  the
	      archive are missed, then try

		     zip -FF foo --out foofixfix

	      and  compare the resulting archive to the archive created by -F.
	      The -FF option may create an inconsistent archive.  Depending on
	      what  is	damaged,  you  can  then use the -F option to fix that

	      A split archive with missing split files can be fixed  using  -F
	      if  you  have the last split of the archive (the .zip file).  If
	      this file is missing, you must use -FF to fix the archive, which
	      will prompt you for the splits you have.

	      Currently	 the fix options can't recover entries that have a bad
	      checksum or are otherwise damaged.

       --fifo [Unix]  Normally zip  skips  reading  any	 FIFOs	(named	pipes)
	      encountered, as zip can hang if the FIFO is not being fed.  This
	      option tells zip to read the contents of any FIFO it finds.

	      Synchronize the contents of an archive with the files on the OS.
	      Normally	when  an  archive  is updated, new files are added and
	      changed files are updated but files that no longer exist on  the
	      OS  are not deleted from the archive.  This option enables a new
	      mode that checks entries in the archive against the file system.
	      If  the file time and file size of the entry matches that of the
	      OS file, the entry is copied from the  old  archive  instead  of
	      being  read from the file system and compressed.	If the OS file
	      has changed, the entry is read and compressed as usual.  If  the
	      entry  in the archive does not match a file on the OS, the entry
	      is deleted.  Enabling this option should	create	archives  that
	      are  the	same  as  new archives, but since existing entries are
	      copied instead of compressed, updating an existing archive  with
	      -FS  can	be much faster than creating a new archive.  Also con-
	      sider using -u for updating an archive.

	      For this option to work, the archive should be updated from  the
	      same  directory  it  was created in so the relative paths match.
	      If few files are being copied from the old archive,  it  may  be
	      faster to create a new archive instead.

	      Note  that  the  timezone	 environment variable TZ should be set
	      according to the local timezone in order for this option to work
	      correctly.   A change in timezone since the original archive was
	      created could result in no times matching and  recompression  of
	      all files.

	      This option deletes files from the archive.  If you need to pre-
	      serve the original archive, make a copy of the archive first  or
	      use  the	--out  option  to  output the updated archive to a new
	      file.  Even though it may be slower, creating a new archive with
	      a	 new  archive name is safer, avoids mismatches between archive
	      and OS paths, and is preferred.

	      Grow (append to) the specified zip archive, instead of  creating
	      a	 new one. If this operation fails, zip attempts to restore the
	      archive to its original state. If	 the  restoration  fails,  the
	      archive  might  become  corrupted.  This	option is ignored when
	      there's no existing archive or when at least one archive	member
	      must be updated or deleted.

	      Display  the  zip	 help information (this also appears if zip is
	      run with no arguments).

	      Display extended help including more  on	command	 line  format,
	      pattern matching, and more obscure options.

       -i files
       --include files
	      Include only the specified files, as in:

		     zip -r foo . -i \*.c

	      which  will include only the files that end in .c in the current
	      directory and its subdirectories. (Note  for  PKZIP  users:  the
	      equivalent command is

		     pkzip -rP foo *.c

	      PKZIP  does  not	allow  recursion in directories other than the
	      current one.)  The backslash avoids the shell filename substitu-
	      tion,  so	 that  the  name  matching  is performed by zip at all
	      directory levels.	 [This is for Unix and other systems  where  \
	      escapes  the  next character.  For other systems where the shell
	      does not process * do not use \ and the above is

		     zip -r foo . -i *.c

	      Examples are  for	 Unix  unless  otherwise  specified.]	So  to
	      include  dir,  a directory directly under the current directory,

		     zip -r foo . -i dir/\*


		     zip -r foo . -i "dir/*"

	      to match paths such as dir/a and dir/b/file.c [on ports  without
	      wildcard expansion in the shell such as MSDOS and Windows

		     zip -r foo . -i dir/*

	      is  used.]   Note	 that  currently  the trailing / is needed for
	      directories (as in

		     zip -r foo . -i dir/

	      to include directory dir).

	      The long option form of the first example is

		     zip -r foo . --include \*.c

	      and does the same thing as the short option form.

	      Though the command syntax used to require -i at the end  of  the
	      command  line,  this  version  actually allows -i (or --include)
	      anywhere.	 The list of files terminates  at  the	next  argument
	      starting with -, the end of the command line, or the list termi-
	      nator @ (an argument that is just @).  So the above can be given

		     zip -i \*.c @ -r foo .

	      for  example.   There must be a space between the option and the
	      first file of a list.  For just one file you can use the	single
	      value form

		     zip -i\*.c -r foo .

	      (no space between option and value) or

		     zip --include=\*.c -r foo .

	      as  additional  examples.	 The single value forms are not recom-
	      mended because they can be confusing  and,  in  particular,  the
	      -ifile  format  can  cause  problems if the first letter of file
	      combines with i to form a two-letter  option  starting  with  i.
	      Use -sc to see how your command line will be parsed.

	      Also possible:

		     zip -r foo	 . -i@include.lst

	      which  will  only include the files in the current directory and
	      its  subdirectories  that	 match	the  patterns  in   the	  file

	      Files to -i and -x are patterns matching internal archive paths.
	      See -R for more on patterns.

	      [Acorn RISC OS] Don't scan through Image files.  When used,  zip
	      will  not	 consider  Image  files	 (eg.  DOS partitions or Spark
	      archives when SparkFS is loaded) as directories but  will	 store
	      them as single files.

	      For example, if you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a Spark archive
	      will result in a zipfile containing a directory  (and  its  con-
	      tent)  while  using the 'I' option will result in a zipfile con-
	      taining a Spark archive. Obviously this second case will also be
	      obtained (without the 'I' option) if SparkFS isn't loaded.

	      [VMS,  WIN32]  Ignore  case when matching archive entries.  This
	      option is only available on systems where the case of  files  is
	      ignored.	On systems with case-insensitive file systems, case is
	      normally ignored when matching files on the file system  but  is
	      not  ignored for -f (freshen), -d (delete), -U (copy), and simi-
	      lar modes when matching against archive  entries	(currently  -f
	      ignores case on VMS) because archive entries can be from systems
	      where case does matter and names that are the  same  except  for
	      case can exist in an archive.  The -ic option makes all matching
	      case insensitive.	 This can result in multiple  archive  entries
	      matching a command line pattern.

	      Store  just the name of a saved file (junk the path), and do not
	      store directory names. By default, zip will store the full  path
	      (relative to the current directory).

	      [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete path including
	      volume will be stored. By default	 the  relative	path  will  be

	      Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.

	      Attempt  to  convert  the	 names	and paths to conform to MSDOS,
	      store only the MSDOS attribute (just the	user  write  attribute
	      from  Unix), and mark the entry as made under MSDOS (even though
	      it was not); for compatibility with PKUNZIP  under  MSDOS	 which
	      cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots.

	      Translate	 the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS con-
	      vention CR LF. This option should not be used on	binary	files.
	      This  option can be used on Unix if the zip file is intended for
	      PKUNZIP under MSDOS. If the input files already contain  CR  LF,
	      this option adds an extra CR. This is to ensure that unzip -a on
	      Unix will get back an exact copy of the original file,  to  undo
	      the effect of zip -l.  See -ll for how binary files are handled.

	      Append to existing logfile.  Default is to overwrite.

       -lf logfilepath
       --logfile-path logfilepath
	      Open a logfile at the given path.	 By default any existing  file
	      at  that location is overwritten, but the -la option will result
	      in an existing file being opened and  the	 new  log  information
	      appended	to any existing information.  Only warnings and errors
	      are written to the log unless the -li option is also given, then
	      all information messages are also written to the log.

	      Include  information  messages, such as file names being zipped,
	      in the log.  The default is to only include  the	command	 line,
	      any warnings and errors, and the final status.

	      Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option
	      should not be used on binary files.  This option can be used  on
	      MSDOS  if the zip file is intended for unzip under Unix.	If the
	      file is converted and the file is later determined to be	binary
	      a warning is issued and the file is probably corrupted.  In this
	      release if -ll detects binary in the first buffer	 read  from  a
	      file,  zip now issues a warning and skips line end conversion on
	      the file.	 This check seems to catch all	binary	files  tested,
	      but  the original check remains and if a converted file is later
	      determined to be binary that warning is  still  issued.	A  new
	      algorithm	 is  now  being	 used for binary detection that should
	      allow line end conversion of text files  in  UTF-8  and  similar

	      Display the zip license.

	      Move  the	 specified  files into the zip archive; actually, this
	      deletes the target directories/files after making the  specified
	      zip  archive.  If a directory becomes empty after removal of the
	      files, the directory is also  removed.  No  deletions  are  done
	      until zip has created the archive without error.	This is useful
	      for conserving disk space, but is potentially dangerous so it is
	      recommended to use it in combination with -T to test the archive
	      before removing all input files.

	      All input patterns must match at least one file  and  all	 input
	      files  found  must  be readable.	Normally when an input pattern
	      does not match a file the "name not matched" warning  is	issued
	      and  when	 an  input file has been found but later is missing or
	      not readable a missing or not readable warning  is  issued.   In
	      either  case zip continues creating the archive, with missing or
	      unreadable new files being skipped  and  files  already  in  the
	      archive  remaining  unchanged.  After the archive is created, if
	      any files were not readable zip returns the OPEN error code  (18
	      on most systems) instead of the normal success return (0 on most
	      systems).	 With -MM set, zip exits as soon as an	input  pattern
	      is not matched (whenever the "name not matched" warning would be
	      issued) or when an input file is not readable.  In  either  case
	      zip exits with an OPEN error and no archive is created.

	      This option is useful when a known list of files is to be zipped
	      so any missing or unreadable files will result in an error.   It
	      is less useful when used with wildcards, but zip will still exit
	      with an error if any input pattern doesn't match	at  least  one
	      file  and	 if  any matched files are unreadable.	If you want to
	      create the archive anyway and only need to know  if  files  were
	      skipped, don't use -MM and just check the return code.  Also -lf
	      could be useful.

       -n suffixes
       --suffixes suffixes
	      Do not attempt to compress files named with the given  suffixes.
	      Such  files are simply stored (0% compression) in the output zip
	      file, so that zip doesn't waste  its  time  trying  to  compress
	      them.   The  suffixes  are  separated  by either colons or semi-
	      colons.  For example:

		     zip -rn .Z:.zip:.tiff:.gif:.snd  foo foo

	      will copy everything from foo into foo.zip, but will  store  any
	      files  that end in .Z, .zip, .tiff, .gif, or .snd without trying
	      to compress them (image and sound files  often  have  their  own
	      specialized compression methods).	 By default, zip does not com-
	      press	files	  with	   extensions	  in	 the	  list
	      .Z:.zip:.zoo:.arc:.lzh:.arj.   Such files are stored directly in
	      the output archive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used
	      to change the default options. For example under Unix with csh:

		     setenv ZIPOPT "-n .gif:.zip"

	      To attempt compression on all files, use:

		     zip -n : foo

	      The  maximum  compression option -9 also attempts compression on
	      all files regardless of extension.

	      On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes  (3
	      hex  digit format). By default, zip does not compress files with
	      filetypes in the list DDC:D96:68E (i.e. Archives, CFS files  and
	      PackDir files).

	      Do not perform internal wildcard processing (shell processing of
	      wildcards is still done by the shell unless  the	arguments  are
	      escaped).	  Useful if a list of paths is being read and no wild-
	      card substitution is desired.

	      [Amiga, MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS  filenotes  as	 zipfile  com-
	      ments.  They can be restored by using the -N option of unzip. If
	      -c is used also, you are prompted for comments  only  for	 those
	      files that do not have filenotes.

	      Set  the	"last  modified" time of the zip archive to the latest
	      (oldest) "last modified" time found among the entries in the zip
	      archive.	 This  can  be	used  without any other operations, if
	      desired.	For example:

	      zip -o foo

	      will change the last modified time of foo.zip to the latest time
	      of the entries in foo.zip.

       -O output-file
       --output-file output-file
	      Process  the  archive  changes as usual, but instead of updating
	      the existing archive, output the	new  archive  to  output-file.
	      Useful  for  updating  an	 archive without changing the existing
	      archive and the input archive must be a different file than  the
	      output archive.

	      This  option  can	 be used to create updated split archives.  It
	      can also be used with  -U	 to  copy  entries  from  an  existing
	      archive to a new archive.	 See the EXAMPLES section below.

	      Another  use  is	converting  zip	 files	from one split size to
	      another.	For instance, to convert an archive  with  700	MB  CD
	      splits to one with 2 GB DVD splits, can use:

		     zip -s 2g cd-split.zip --out dvd-split.zip

	      which uses copy mode.  See -U below.  Also:

		     zip -s 0 split.zip --out unsplit.zip

	      will convert a split archive to a single-file archive.

	      Copy  mode  will	convert stream entries (using data descriptors
	      and which should be  compatible  with  most  unzips)  to	normal
	      entries  (which should be compatible with all unzips), except if
	      standard encryption  was	used.	For  archives  with  encrypted
	      entries,	zipcloak  will decrypt the entries and convert them to
	      normal entries.

	      Include relative file paths as part of the names of files stored
	      in  the  archive.	 This is the default.  The -j option junks the
	      paths and just stores the names of the files.

       -P password
       --password password
	      Use password to encrypt zipfile entries (if any).	 THIS IS INSE-
	      CURE!   Many  multi-user	operating systems provide ways for any
	      user to see the current command line of any other user; even  on
	      stand-alone  systems  there  is  always  the threat of over-the-
	      shoulder peeking.	 Storing the plaintext password as part	 of  a
	      command  line  in	 an  automated script is even worse.  Whenever
	      possible, use the non-echoing, interactive prompt to enter pass-
	      words.   (And  where  security  is  truly	 important, use strong
	      encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively
	      weak standard encryption provided by zipfile utilities.)

	      Quiet   mode;   eliminate	 informational	messages  and  comment
	      prompts.	(Useful, for example, in shell scripts and  background

       --Q-flag n
	      [QDOS]  store information about the file in the file header with
	      n defined as
	      bit  0: Don't add headers for any file
	      bit  1: Add headers for all files
	      bit  2: Don't wait for interactive key press on exit

	      Travel the directory structure recursively; for example:

		     zip -r foo.zip foo

	      or more concisely

		     zip -r foo foo

	      In this case, all the files and directories in foo are saved  in
	      a zip archive named foo.zip, including files with names starting
	      with ".", since the recursion does not use the shell's file-name
	      substitution  mechanism.	If you wish to include only a specific
	      subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories, use
	      the  -i  option  to specify the pattern of files to be included.
	      You should not use -r with the name  ".*",  since	 that  matches
	      ".."   which will attempt to zip up the parent directory (proba-
	      bly not what was intended).

	      Multiple source directories are allowed as in

		     zip -r foo foo1 foo2

	      which first zips up foo1 and then foo2, going down  each	direc-

	      Note  that  while	 wildcards  to -r are typically resolved while
	      recursing down directories in the file system, any -R,  -x,  and
	      -i  wildcards are applied to internal archive pathnames once the
	      directories are scanned.	To have wildcards apply	 to  files  in
	      subdirectories  when recursing on Unix and similar systems where
	      the shell does wildcard substitution, either  escape  all	 wild-
	      cards  or put all arguments with wildcards in quotes.  This lets
	      zip see the wildcards and match files  in	 subdirectories	 using
	      them as it recurses.

	      Travel  the directory structure recursively starting at the cur-
	      rent directory; for example:

		     zip -R foo "*.c"

	      In this case, all the files matching *.c in the tree starting at
	      the  current  directory  are  stored  into  a  zip archive named
	      foo.zip.	Note that *.c will match file.c, a/file.c and  a/b/.c.
	      More than one pattern can be listed as separate arguments.  Note
	      for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

		     pkzip -rP foo *.c

	      Patterns are relative file paths as they appear in the  archive,
	      or  will after zipping, and can have optional wildcards in them.
	      For example, given the current directory is foo and under it are
	      directories foo1 and foo2 and in foo1 is the file bar.c,

		     zip -R foo/*

	      will zip up foo, foo/foo1, foo/foo1/bar.c, and foo/foo2.

		     zip -R */bar.c

	      will  zip	 up  foo/foo1/bar.c.   See the note for -r on escaping

	      [WIN32]  Before zip 3.0, regular expression  list	 matching  was
	      enabled  by  default on Windows platforms.  Because of confusion
	      resulting from the need to escape "[" and "]" in	names,	it  is
	      now  off	by  default for Windows so "[" and "]" are just normal
	      characters in names.  This option enables [] matching again.

       -s splitsize
       --split-size splitsize
	      Enable creating a split archive and set the split size.  A split
	      archive  is  an archive that could be split over many files.  As
	      the archive is created, if the size of the archive  reaches  the
	      specified	 split	size,  that split is closed and the next split
	      opened.  In general all splits but the last will	be  the	 split
	      size  and	 the  last  will  be  whatever is left.	 If the entire
	      archive is smaller than the split size a single-file archive  is

	      Split  archives  are  stored in numbered files.  For example, if
	      the output  archive  is  named  archive  and  three  splits  are
	      required,	 the  resulting	 archive  will	be  in the three files
	      archive.z01, archive.z02, and archive.zip.  Do  not  change  the
	      numbering	 of these files or the archive will not be readable as
	      these are used to determine the order the splits are read.

	      Split size is a number  optionally  followed  by	a  multiplier.
	      Currently	 the  number  must  be an integer.  The multiplier can
	      currently be one of k (kilobytes), m (megabytes), g (gigabytes),
	      or  t  (terabytes).   As	64k is the minimum split size, numbers
	      without multipliers default to megabytes.	 For example, to  cre-
	      ate  a  split  archive  called  foo with the contents of the bar
	      directory with splits of 670 MB that might be useful for burning
	      on CDs, the command:

		     zip -s 670m -r foo bar

	      could be used.

	      Currently	 the  old  splits  of a split archive are not excluded
	      from a new archive, but they can be specifically	excluded.   If
	      possible,	 keep  the  input  and output archives out of the path
	      being zipped when creating split archives.

	      Using -s without -sp as above creates all the splits  where  foo
	      is  being	 written,  in  this  case the current directory.  This
	      split mode updates the splits as the archive is  being  created,
	      requiring	 all  splits  to  remain  writable,  but creates split
	      archives that are readable by  any  unzip	 that  supports	 split
	      archives.	  See  -sp  below  for enabling split pause mode which
	      allows splits to be written directly to removable media.

	      The option -sv can be used to enable verbose splitting and  pro-
	      vide details of how the splitting is being done.	The -sb option
	      can be used to ring the bell when zip pauses for the next	 split

	      Split  archives cannot be updated, but see the -O (--out) option
	      for how a split archive can be updated as it is copied to a  new
	      archive.	 A  split archive can also be converted into a single-
	      file archive using a split size of 0 or negating the -s option:

		     zip -s 0 split.zip --out single.zip

	      Also see -U (--copy) for more on using copy mode.

	      If splitting and using split pause mode, ring the bell when  zip
	      pauses for each split destination.

	      Show  the	 command line starting zip as processed and exit.  The
	      new command parser permutes the arguments, putting  all  options
	      and  any values associated with them before any non-option argu-
	      ments.  This allows an option to appear anywhere in the  command
	      line  as	long as any values that go with the option go with it.
	      This option displays the command line as zip sees it,  including
	      any arguments from the environment such as from the ZIPOPT vari-
	      able.  Where allowed, options later  in  the  command  line  can
	      override options earlier in the command line.

	      Show  the	 files	that  would  be	 operated  on, then exit.  For
	      instance, if creating a new archive, this will  list  the	 files
	      that  would  be  added.	If the option is negated, -sf-, output
	      only to an open log file.	 Screen display is not recommended for
	      large lists.

	      Show  all	 available options supported by zip as compiled on the
	      current system.  As this command	reads  the  option  table,  it
	      should include all options.  Each line includes the short option
	      (if defined), the long option (if defined), the  format  of  any
	      value  that  goes with the option, if the option can be negated,
	      and a small description.	The value  format  can	be  no	value,
	      required	value,	optional value, single character value, number
	      value, or a list of values.  The output of this  option  is  not
	      intended	to  show  how  to  use	any  option but only show what
	      options are available.

	      If splitting is enabled with -s, enable split pause mode.	  This
	      creates split archives as -s does, but stream writing is used so
	      each split can be closed as soon as it is written and  zip  will
	      pause  between each split to allow changing split destination or

	      Though this split mode allows writing splits directly to	remov-
	      able  media, it uses stream archive format that may not be read-
	      able by some unzips.  Before relying on splits created with -sp,
	      test a split archive with the unzip you will be using.

	      To  convert a stream split archive (created with -sp) to a stan-
	      dard archive see the --out option.

	      As -sf, but also show Unicode version of the path if exists.

	      As -sf, but only show Unicode version of	the  path  if  exists,
	      otherwise show the standard version of the path.

	      Enable various verbose messages while splitting, showing how the
	      splitting is being done.

	      [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden	files.
	      [MacOS]  Includes finder invisible files, which are ignored oth-

       -t mmddyyyy
       --from-date mmddyyyy
	      Do not operate on files modified prior to	 the  specified	 date,
	      where  mm	 is  the  month	 (00-12),  dd  is the day of the month
	      (01-31), and  yyyy  is  the  year.   The	ISO 8601  date	format
	      yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For example:

		     zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

		     zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

	      will  add	 all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were
	      last modified on or after 7 December 1991, to  the  zip  archive

       -tt mmddyyyy
       --before-date mmddyyyy
	      Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date,
	      where mm is the month (00-12),  dd  is  the  day	of  the	 month
	      (01-31),	and  yyyy  is  the  year.   The	 ISO 8601  date format
	      yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For example:

		     zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

		     zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

	      will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories  that  were
	      last  modified  before  30  November  1995,  to  the zip archive

	      Test the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails,  the
	      old  zip	file  is  unchanged  and (with the -m option) no input
	      files are removed.

       -TT cmd
       --unzip-command cmd
	      Use command cmd instead of 'unzip -tqq' to test an archive  when
	      the  -T  option is used.	On Unix, to use a copy of unzip in the
	      current directory instead of the standard	 system	 unzip,	 could

	       zip archive file1 file2 -T -TT "./unzip -tqq"

	      In  cmd,	{}  is	replaced by the name of the temporary archive,
	      otherwise the name of the archive is appended to the end of  the
	      command.	The return code is checked for success (0 on Unix).

	      Replace (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it
	      has been modified more recently than the version already in  the
	      zip archive.  For example:

		     zip -u stuff *

	      will  add any new files in the current directory, and update any
	      files which have been modified since the zip  archive  stuff.zip
	      was  last	 created/modified  (note that zip will not try to pack
	      stuff.zip into itself when you do this).

	      Note that the -u option with no input file arguments  acts  like
	      the -f (freshen) option.

	      Copy  entries  from  one archive to another.  Requires the --out
	      option to	 specify  a  different	output	file  than  the	 input
	      archive.	Copy mode is the reverse of -d delete.	When delete is
	      being used with --out, the selected entries are deleted from the
	      archive  and  all	 other	entries are copied to the new archive,
	      while copy mode selects the files to include in the new archive.
	      Unlike -u update, input patterns on the command line are matched
	      against archive entries only and not the file system files.  For

		     zip inarchive "*.c" --copy --out outarchive

	      copies  entries  with  names ending in .c from inarchive to out-
	      archive.	The wildcard must be escaped on some systems  to  pre-
	      vent  the	 shell	from substituting names of files from the file
	      system which may	have  no  relevance  to	 the  entries  in  the

	      If  no input files appear on the command line and --out is used,
	      copy mode is assumed:

		     zip inarchive --out outarchive

	      This is useful for changing split size for instance.  Encrypting
	      and  decrypting  entries	is  not yet supported using copy mode.
	      Use zipcloak for that.

       -UN v
       --unicode v
	      Determine what zip should do with Unicode file names.   zip 3.0,
	      in  addition  to	the standard file path, now includes the UTF-8
	      translation of the path if the entry path is not entirely	 7-bit
	      ASCII.   When  an entry is missing the Unicode path, zip reverts
	      back to the standard file path.	The  problem  with  using  the
	      standard	path is this path is in the local character set of the
	      zip that created the entry, which may  contain  characters  that
	      are  not	valid  in  the	character set being used by the unzip.
	      When zip is reading an archive, if an entry also has  a  Unicode
	      path, zip now defaults to using the Unicode path to recreate the
	      standard path using the current local character set.

	      This option can be used to determine what	 zip  should  do  with
	      this  path  if  there  is a mismatch between the stored standard
	      path and the stored UTF-8 path (which can happen if the standard
	      path  was	 updated).  In all cases, if there is a mismatch it is
	      assumed that the standard path is	 more  current	and  zip  uses
	      that.  Values for v are

		     q - quit if paths do not match

		     w - warn, continue with standard path

		     i - ignore, continue with standard path

		     n - no Unicode, do not use Unicode paths

	      The default is to warn and continue.

	      Characters  that	are not valid in the current character set are
	      escaped as #Uxxxx and #Lxxxxxx, where x is  an  ASCII  character
	      for a hex digit.	The first is used if a 16-bit character number
	      is sufficient to represent the Unicode character and the	second
	      if  the character needs more than 16 bits to represent it's Uni-
	      code character code.  Setting -UN to

		     e - escape

	      as in

		     zip archive -sU -UN=e

	      forces zip to escape all characters that are not printable 7-bit

	      Normally zip stores UTF-8 directly in the standard path field on
	      systems where UTF-8 is the current character set and stores  the
	      UTF-8 in the new extra fields otherwise.	The option

		     u - UTF-8

	      as in

		     zip archive dir -r -UN=UTF8

	      forces  zip  to store UTF-8 as native in the archive.  Note that
	      storing UTF-8 directly is the default on Unix systems that  sup-
	      port  it.	  This option could be useful on Windows systems where
	      the escaped path is too large to be a valid path and  the	 UTF-8
	      version of the path is smaller, but native UTF-8 is not backward
	      compatible on Windows systems.

	      Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.

	      Normally, when applied to real operations, this  option  enables
	      the  display of a progress indicator during compression (see -dd
	      for more on dots) and requests  verbose  diagnostic  info	 about
	      zipfile structure oddities.

	      However,	when -v is the only command line argument a diagnostic
	      screen is printed instead.  This should now work even if	stdout
	      is redirected to a file, allowing easy saving of the information
	      for sending with bug reports to Info-ZIP.	  The  version	screen
	      provides	the help screen header with program name, version, and
	      release date, some pointers to the Info-ZIP home	and  distribu-
	      tion  sites,  and shows information about the target environment
	      (compiler type and version, OS version, compilation date and the
	      enabled optional features used to create the zip executable).

	      [VMS]  Save VMS file attributes.	(Files are  truncated at EOF.)
	      When a -V archive is unpacked on a non-VMS  system,   some  file
	      types  (notably  Stream_LF  text	files	and  pure binary files
	      like fixed-512) should be extracted intact.  Indexed  files  and
	      file  types  with embedded record sizes (notably variable-length
	      record types) will probably be seen as corrupt elsewhere.

	      [VMS] Save VMS file attributes, and  all allocated blocks	 in  a
	      file,   including	 any  data beyond EOF.	Useful for moving ill-
	      formed files  among   VMS	 systems.    When  a  -VV  archive  is
	      unpacked	on a non-VMS system, almost all files will appear cor-

	      [VMS] Append the version	number	of  the	 files	to  the	 name,
	      including	 multiple  versions  of files.	Default is to use only
	      the most recent version of a specified file.

	      [VMS] Append the version	number	of  the	 files	to  the	 name,
	      including	 multiple  versions  of	 files, using the .nnn format.
	      Default is to use only the most recent version  of  a  specified

	      Wildcards match only at a directory level.  Normally zip handles
	      paths as strings and given the paths



	      an input pattern such as


	      normally would match both paths, the * matching dir/file1.c  and
	      file2.c.	 Note  that in the first case a directory boundary (/)
	      was crossed in the match.	 With -ws no directory bounds will  be
	      included	in  the	 match,	 making	 wildcards local to a specific
	      directory level.	So, with -ws enabled,  only  the  second  path
	      would be matched.

	      When using -ws, use ** to match across directory boundaries as *
	      does normally.

       -x files
       --exclude files
	      Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:

		     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

	      which will include the contents of foo in foo.zip while  exclud-
	      ing  all	the  files  that  end in .o.  The backslash avoids the
	      shell filename substitution, so that the name matching  is  per-
	      formed by zip at all directory levels.

	      Also possible:

		     zip -r foo foo -x@exclude.lst

	      which  will include the contents of foo in foo.zip while exclud-
	      ing  all	the  files  that  match	 the  patterns	in  the	  file

	      The long option forms of the above are

		     zip -r foo foo --exclude \*.o


		     zip -r foo foo --exclude @exclude.lst

	      Multiple patterns can be specified, as in:

		     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o \*.c

	      If  there is no space between -x and the pattern, just one value
	      is assumed (no list):

		     zip -r foo foo -x\*.o

	      See -i for more on include and exclude.

	      Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on	 OS/2,
	      uid/gid  and  file  times	 on  Unix).  The zip format uses extra
	      fields to include additional information for each	 entry.	  Some
	      extra fields are specific to particular systems while others are
	      applicable to all systems.  Normally when zip reads entries from
	      an  existing archive, it reads the extra fields it knows, strips
	      the rest, and adds the extra fields applicable to	 that  system.
	      With -X, zip strips all old fields and only includes the Unicode
	      and Zip64 extra fields (currently these two extra fields	cannot
	      be disabled).

	      Negating	this  option,  -X-,  includes  all  the	 default extra
	      fields, but also copies over any unrecognized extra fields.

	      For UNIX and VMS (V8.3 and later), store symbolic links as  such
	      in  the zip archive, instead of compressing and storing the file
	      referred to by the link.	This  can  avoid  multiple  copies  of
	      files  being  included in the archive as zip recurses the direc-
	      tory trees and accesses files directly and by links.

	      Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The
	      comment  is  ended by a line containing just a period, or an end
	      of file condition (^D on Unix, ^Z on MSDOS, OS/2, and VMS).  The
	      comment can be taken from a file:

		     zip -z foo < foowhat

       -Z cm
       --compression-method cm
	      Set  the default compression method.  Currently the main methods
	      supported by zip are store and deflate.  Compression method  can
	      be set to:

	      store  -	Setting	 the compression method to store forces zip to
	      store entries with no compression.   This	 is  generally	faster
	      than compressing entries, but results in no space savings.  This
	      is the same as using -0 (compression level zero).

	      deflate - This is the default method for zip.  If zip determines
	      that  storing is better than deflation, the entry will be stored

	      bzip2 - If bzip2 support is compiled in, this compression method
	      also  becomes available.	Only some modern unzips currently sup-
	      port the bzip2 compression method, so test the unzip you will be
	      using  before relying on archives using this method (compression
	      method 12).

	      For example, to add bar.c to archive foo	using  bzip2  compres-

		     zip -Z bzip2 foo bar.c

	      The compression method can be abbreviated:

		     zip -Zb foo bar.c

       (-0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9)
	      Regulate	the  speed of compression using the specified digit #,
	      where -0 indicates no compression (store all  files),  -1	 indi-
	      cates  the  fastest  compression speed (less compression) and -9
	      indicates the slowest compression	 speed	(optimal  compression,
	      ignores the suffix list). The default compression level is -6.

	      Though  still  being  worked, the intention is this setting will
	      control compression speed for  all  compression  methods.	  Cur-
	      rently only deflation is controlled.

	      [WIN32]  Use  priviliges	(if  granted) to obtain all aspects of
	      WinNT security.

	      Take the list of input files from standard input. Only one file-
	      name per line.

	      [MSDOS,  OS/2,  WIN32]  Include  the  volume label for the drive
	      holding the first file to be compressed.	If you want to include
	      only  the	 volume	 label	or  to force a specific drive, use the
	      drive name as first file name, as in:

		     zip -$ foo a: c:bar

       The simplest example:

	      zip stuff *

       creates the archive stuff.zip (assuming it does not exist) and puts all
       the  files in the current directory in it, in compressed form (the .zip
       suffix is added automatically, unless the archive name contains	a  dot
       already; this allows the explicit specification of other suffixes).

       Because	of the way the shell on Unix does filename substitution, files
       starting with "." are not included; to include these as well:

	      zip stuff .* *

       Even this will not include any subdirectories from the  current	direc-

       To zip up an entire directory, the command:

	      zip -r foo foo

       creates	the  archive foo.zip, containing all the files and directories
       in the directory foo that is contained within the current directory.

       You may want to make a zip archive that	contains  the  files  in  foo,
       without	recording  the directory name, foo.  You can use the -j option
       to leave off the paths, as in:

	      zip -j foo foo/*

       If you are short on disk space, you might not have enough room to  hold
       both  the  original  directory  and  the	 corresponding	compressed zip
       archive.	 In this case, you can create the archive in steps  using  the
       -m  option.   If	 foo contains the subdirectories tom, dick, and harry,
       you can:

	      zip -rm foo foo/tom
	      zip -rm foo foo/dick
	      zip -rm foo foo/harry

       where the first command creates foo.zip, and the next two  add  to  it.
       At  the	completion  of	each  zip command, the last created archive is
       deleted, making room for the next zip command to function.

       Use -s to set the split size and create a split archive.	 The  size  is
       given as a number followed optionally by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB),
       or t (TB).  The command

	      zip -s 2g -r split.zip foo

       creates a split archive of the directory foo with splits no bigger than
       2 GB  each.   If	 foo  contained 5 GB of contents and the contents were
       stored in the split archive without compression (to make	 this  example
       simple),	 this  would create three splits, split.z01 at 2 GB, split.z02
       at 2 GB, and split.zip at a little over 1 GB.

       The -sp option can be used to pause zip between splits to allow	chang-
       ing  removable  media, for example, but read the descriptions and warn-
       ings for both -s and -sp below.

       Though zip does not update split archives, zip provides the new	option
       -O (--output-file) to allow split archives to be updated and saved in a
       new archive.  For example,

	      zip inarchive.zip foo.c bar.c --out outarchive.zip

       reads archive inarchive.zip, even if split, adds the  files  foo.c  and
       bar.c,  and  writes  the resulting archive to outarchive.zip.  If inar-
       chive.zip is split then outarchive.zip defaults to the same split size.
       Be  aware that outarchive.zip and any split files that are created with
       it are always overwritten without warning.  This may be changed in  the

       This  section  applies  only  to Unix.  Watch this space for details on
       MSDOS and VMS operation.	 However, the special  wildcard	 characters  *
       and [] below apply to at least MSDOS also.

       The  Unix  shells (sh, csh, bash, and others) normally do filename sub-
       stitution (also called "globbing") on command arguments.	 Generally the
       special characters are:

       ?      match any single character

       *      match any number of characters (including none)

       []     match  any  character in the range indicated within the brackets
	      (example: [a-f], [0-9]).	This form of wildcard matching	allows
	      a	 user  to specify a list of characters between square brackets
	      and if any of the characters match the expression matches.   For

		     zip archive "*.[hc]"

	      would  archive all files in the current directory that end in .h
	      or .c.

	      Ranges of characters are supported:

		     zip archive "[a-f]*"

	      would add to the archive all files  starting  with  "a"  through

	      Negation is also supported, where any character in that position
	      not in the list matches.	Negation is supported by adding ! or ^
	      to the beginning of the list:

		     zip archive "*.[!o]"

	      matches files that don't end in ".o".

	      On  WIN32, [] matching needs to be turned on with the -RE option
	      to avoid the confusion that names with [ or ] have caused.

       When these characters are encountered (without  being  escaped  with  a
       backslash  or  quotes),	the  shell will look for files relative to the
       current path that match the pattern, and replace the  argument  with  a
       list of the names that matched.

       The  zip	 program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip
       archive being modified or, in the  case	of  the	 -x  (exclude)	or  -i
       (include)  options,  on	the  list of files to be operated on, by using
       backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the  name  expansion.
       In  general,  when zip encounters a name in the list of files to do, it
       first looks for the name in the file system.  If it finds it,  it  then
       adds  it	 to the list of files to do.  If it does not find it, it looks
       for the name in the zip archive being modified (if  it  exists),	 using
       the  pattern matching characters described above, if present.  For each
       match, it will add that name to the list	 of  files  to	be  processed,
       unless  this  name  matches  one	 given with the -x option, or does not
       match any name given with the -i option.

       The pattern matching includes the path, and so patterns like \*.o match
       names  that  end in ".o", no matter what the path prefix is.  Note that
       the backslash must precede every special character (i.e. ?*[]), or  the
       entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes ("").

       In  general, use backslashes or double quotes for paths that have wild-
       cards to make zip do the pattern matching for file  paths,  and	always
       for paths and strings that have spaces or wildcards for -i, -x, -R, -d,
       and -U and anywhere zip needs to process the wildcards.

       The following environment  variables  are  read	and  used  by  zip  as

	      contains	default	 options  that	will be used when running zip.
	      The contents of this environment variable will get added to  the
	      command line just after the zip command.

	      [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

	      [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

	      [RISC  OS]  contains extensions separated by a : that will cause
	      native filenames with one of  the	 specified  extensions	to  be
	      added to the zip file with basename and extension swapped.

	      [VMS] see ZIPOPT

       compress(1), shar(1L), tar(1), unzip(1L), gzip(1L)

       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:

	      0	     normal; no errors or warnings detected.

	      2	     unexpected end of zip file.

	      3	     a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.  Pro-
		     cessing may have completed successfully anyway; some bro-
		     ken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple work-

	      4	     zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers
		     during program initialization.

	      5	     a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.	  Pro-
		     cessing probably failed immediately.

	      6	     entry  too	 large	to  be	processed (such as input files
		     larger than 2 GB when not using Zip64 or trying  to  read
		     an existing archive that is too large) or entry too large
		     to be split with zipsplit

	      7	     invalid comment format

	      8	     zip -T failed or out of memory

	      9	     the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or simi-

	      10     zip encountered an error while using a temp file

	      11     read or seek error

	      12     zip has nothing to do

	      13     missing or empty zip file

	      14     error writing to a file

	      15     zip was unable to create a file to write to

	      16     bad command line parameters

	      18     zip could not open a specified file to read

	      19     zip  was compiled with options not supported on this sys-

       VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as  other,  scarier-
       looking	things,	 so zip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.
       In general, zip sets VMS Facility = 1955 (0x07A3), Code = 2*  Unix_sta-
       tus,  and  an  appropriate  Severity  (as specified in ziperr.h).  More
       details	are  included  in   the	  VMS-specific	 documentation.	   See
       [.vms]NOTES.TXT and [.vms]vms_msg_gen.c.

       zip 3.0 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1 to produce zip
       files which can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1.10.

       zip files produced by zip 3.0 must not be updated by zip 1.1  or	 PKZIP
       1.10,  if  they contain encrypted members or if they have been produced
       in a pipe or on a non-seekable device. The old versions of zip or PKZIP
       would create an archive with an incorrect format.  The old versions can
       list the contents of the zip file but cannot extract it anyway (because
       of  the	new  compression algorithm).  If you do not use encryption and
       use regular disk files, you do not have to care about this problem.

       Under VMS, not all of the odd file formats are treated properly.	  Only
       stream-LF  format  zip files are expected to work with zip.  Others can
       be converted using Rahul Dhesi's BILF program.	This  version  of  zip
       handles some of the conversion internally.  When using Kermit to trans-
       fer zip files from VMS to MSDOS, type "set file	type  block"  on  VMS.
       When  transfering from MSDOS to VMS, type "set file type fixed" on VMS.
       In both cases, type "set file type binary" on MSDOS.

       Under some older VMS versions, zip may  hang  for  file	specifications
       that use DECnet syntax foo::*.*.

       On OS/2, zip cannot match some names, such as those including an excla-
       mation mark or a hash sign.  This is a bug in OS/2 itself:  the	32-bit
       DosFindFirst/Next  don't	 find  such names.  Other programs such as GNU
       tar are also affected by this bug.

       Under OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is  (for
       compatibility)  the  amount returned by the 16-bit version of DosQuery-
       PathInfo(). Otherwise OS/2 1.3 and 2.0 would report different EA	 sizes
       when  DIRing  a	file.	However,  the structure layout returned by the
       32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different,  it  uses	extra  padding
       bytes  and  link	 pointers  (it's  a linked list) to have all fields on
       4-byte boundaries for portability to future RISC OS/2 versions.	There-
       fore  the value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size) dif-
       fers from that reported by DIR.	 zip  stores  the  32-bit  format  for
       portability, even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1.3,
       so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.

       Copyright (C) 1997-2008 Info-ZIP.

       Currently distributed under the Info-ZIP license.

       Copyright (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler, Richard B. Wales, Jean-loup Gailly,
       Onno  van  der Linden, Kai Uwe Rommel, Igor Mandrichenko, John Bush and
       Paul Kienitz.

       Original copyright:

       Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use, copy, or
       redistribute  this  software  so	 long as all of the original files are
       included, that it is not sold  for  profit,  and	 that  this  copyright
       notice is retained.


       Please send bug reports and comments using the web page	at:  www.info-
       zip.org.	  For  bug  reports,  please  include  the version of zip (see
       zip -h), the make options used to compile it (see zip -v), the  machine
       and operating system in use, and as much additional information as pos-

       Thanks to R. P. Byrne for his Shrink.Pas program, which	inspired  this
       project,	 and  from which the shrink algorithm was stolen; to Phil Katz
       for placing in the public domain the zip file format, compression  for-
       mat,  and  .ZIP	filename extension, and for accepting minor changes to
       the file format; to Steve Burg for clarifications on the	 deflate  for-
       mat;  to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some useful
       ideas for the compression algorithm; to	Keith  Petersen,  Rich	Wales,
       Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and ftp site
       for the Info-ZIP group to use; and most importantly,  to	 the  Info-ZIP
       group  itself  (listed  in the file infozip.who) without whose tireless
       testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable zip would not have been  pos-
       sible.	Finally	 we should thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP moderator,
       David Kirschbaum, for getting us into this mess	in  the	 first	place.
       The  manual page was rewritten for Unix by R. P. C. Rodgers and updated
       by E. Gordon for zip 3.0.

Info-ZIP		      16 June 2008 (v3.0)		       ZIP(1L)