[Main Idea] [Abstract]  
Wide GSM fingerprints (signal strength readings of multiple radio beacons) allow for accurate indoor localization (2.5m - 5.5m median error)
Accurate indoor localization has long been an objective of the ubiquitous computing research community, and numerous indoor localization solutions based on 802.11, Bluetooth, ultrasound and infrared technologies have been proposed. This paper presents the first accurate GSM indoor localization system that achieves median accuracy of 5 meters in large multi-floor buildings. The key idea that makes accurate GSM-based indoor localization possible is the use of wide signal-strength fingerprints. In addition to the 6-strongest cells traditionally used in the GSM standard, the wide fingerprint includes readings from additional cells that are strong enough to be detected, but too weak to be used for efficient communication. Experiments conducted on three multi-floor buildings show that our system achieves accuracy comparable to an 802.11-based implementation, and can accurately differentiate between floors in both wooden and steel-reinforced concrete structures.