Algorithms for load balancing of unstructured application has reached a degree of maturity. The static load balancing problem (mesh partitioning) can be deemed as solved. A number of fast and high quality parallel mesh partitioning codes are now available. Flow calculation and the node selection part of the dynamic load balancing problem are also more or less solved.
Some problems still remain. For some applications factors such as aspect ratio of the subdomains affect the convergence and there are few partitioning algorithms that take this into account [16,84]. For multi-phase calculations, mesh partitioning algorithms that satisfy multiple constraints are needed. Implementation of dynamic load balancing on large scale applications also deserves further investigation. These could be areas where new results will emerge and conclusions will be drawn as to the types of applications where dynamic load balancing is effective.